Historical reference on cholera in Russia
The population of Russia (Russian Empire and Soviet Union) suffered from cholera in the time of all 6 pandemics (1817-1925).
Ways of distribution of cholera are the areas bordering with the Caspian Sea (Astrakhan). Then spread the disease upstream of the Volga River. Also, cholera came from Central Asia (Bukhara) and through the steppes of Kazakhstan spread across the central regions.
During the second pandemic (1826-1837), the disease covered almost the entire country, the biggest cities, over two years more than 534 thousand people were ill and 230 thousand died.
During the third pandemic only in 1848 the morbidity was 1 772 439 people and 690 150 died. At that time, cholera spread out far to the north to Arkhangelsk and the Kola Peninsula.
In general, over the period of more than 100 years from 1823 to 1925 in Russia there were 55 "cholera" years. Over the years, it was registered about 5 500 000 sick and 2.3 million dead. In the 30-40s, cases of cholera drift into the territory.
The seventh pandemic affected Russia as well (since 1961). At first it appeared in Uzbekistan region from Afghanistan. 1970 was the worst (July-August), cholera came to south towns Astrakhan (near the Caspian Sea), Kerch (Crimea) and Odessa (Ukraine). Quarantine was introduced. The outbreak was eliminated for 1-1,5 months.
At present, in June-July 2010, three cases of cholera from India were brought to the Russian Federation, which were not further spread among the population. When analyzing the activities carried out by health authorities and institutions when importing cholera, a number of shortcomings have been identified, including the lack of alertness of medical personnel in clinical manifestations that do not exclude the diagnosis of cholera in citizens who have arrived from an endemic area.
It should be remembered that one of the key places for assessing and predicting the epidemiological situation in cholera in the Russian Federation is information on the allocation of cholera vibrios from environmental objects. Within the framework of the planned monitoring of surface water bodies from water samples, 29 to 119 cholera vibrios O1 and O139 serogroups are isolated annually. In 2001, 874 cultures were allocated. In addition, between 1994 and 1999, In the Republic of Dagestan (Caucasus region), Primorsky Krai and Sakhalin (Far East), virulent strains of cholera vibrios were isolated.
In 2010, 83 nontoxigenic cultures of cholera vibrio O1 serogroups were isolated from epidemiological manifestations of cholera in 10 subjects of the Russian Federation belonging to types I, II and III types of subtypes A and B. Allocation of crops took place in St. Petersburg, the republics of the Sakha (Yakutia) and Kalmykia, Altai, Trans Baikal, Primorye, Arkhangelsk, Irkutsk, Novosibirsk and Rostov regions.